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Monday, April 18, 2016

உலகப் பெண்கள் நாள் - தோற்றமும் தொடர்ச்சியும்

midj;Jyfg; ngz;fs; ehs; - Njhw;wKk; njhlu;r;rpAk;
nghd;idah tpNtfhde;jd;

gz;ila cyfpd; gy;NtW gFjpfspy; xNu fhyg;nghOjpy; njhlu;gw;w epiyapy; gy kdpj ,df;FOkq;fs; tho;e;jpUf;fpd;wd. kdpj ,dj;jpd; Kjd;ikf; $Wfshd Mz;> ngz; vd;w ,U ghyUf;FkpilNaahd cwTepiyfs;  vy;yh ,df;FOkq;fspilNaAk; xNu jd;ik nfhz;ldthf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. nghUshjhuk;> fhyepiy> epy miktpay; Nghd;wd xU r%fj;jpdJ elj;ijfisf; fl;likg;gjpy; ngUk; gq;fhw;wpd. ek;gpf;if> gz;ghL> gof;f tof;fq;fs; vd;gd ,e;j elj;ijfSf;Nfw;g> cUthf;fk; ngw;wd. ,it ahTk; xd;wpize;Nj Mz; ngz; cwTepiyfis tbtikj;jd. ngz;fs; njhlu;ghd r%fg; ngWkhdj;ij ,itNa jPu;khdpj;jd. ,jd; mbg;gilapNyNa cyfg; ngz;zpa tuyhW Nehf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

Fwpg;gpl;l xU r%fk; rhu;e;j ngz;fs; njhlu;ghd tuyhW midj;J ,dq;fSf;Fkhd tuyhwhfp tpl KbahJ. mNjNtis> ngz;zpak; gw;wpa gz;Gfs; gy> vy;yh r%fq;fSf;Fk; nghJthd ,Ug;gjidAk; ehk; kWj;Jtpl KbahJ.

Xg;gPl;lstpy; vy;yhr; r%fq;fspYk; Mz;fspd; MSikNa Xq;fpapUe;jJ vd;gijg; gyUk; Vw;Wf;nfhz;Ls;sdu;. tuyhw;wpd; njhlf;f fhyj;jpy; INuhg;gpa ehLfSld; xg;gpLfpwNghJ Mrpa ehLfisr; Nru;e;j ngz;fs; XusT Nkk;gl;bUe;jdu; vdyhk;.

INuhg;gpau; Nkw;nfhz;l cyfshtpa Ml;rp tpupthf;fj;jpd; gpd;dNu ngz;zpak; njhlu;ghd Nghf;Ffspy; xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l ehLfs; ,iza Muk;gpj;jd. gj;njhd;gjhk; E}w;whz;bd; gpd;dNu cyfshtpa tifapy; ngz;zpag; Nghf;Ffs; xUKfg;gLj;jg;gl;ld. mikg;G topg;gl;l nraw;ghLfs; Njhw;wk; nfhz;ld.

tuyhw;wpy; ngz;zpak; NgnuOr;rp nfhz;nlOe;j fskhf INuhg;ghNt jpfo;fpd;wJ. mjpfhu ntwpAk; NghUk; epiwe;jpUe;j INuhg;gpa r%fj;jpy; ngz;fspd; epiy Ngutyk; kpf;fjhftpUe;jJ. gjpd;dhd;fhtJ E}w;whz;by; gpd;dNu ,e;ehLfspy; ngz;fs; kPjhd mlf;FKiwfSf;F vjpuhd fUj;Jfs; vo Muk;gpj;jd vd;fpd;wdu; Ma;thsu;.

ngz;zpar; rpe;jidfspd; Njhw;Wtha;> tsu;r;rp> vOr;rp rhu;e;j epfo;TfisAk; nra;jpfisAk; INuhg;gpa r%fk; Kbe;jtiu gjpT nra;J itj;jpUf;fpd;wJ. me;j rhd;Wfspd; top epd;W INuhg;gpa r%fj;jpd; Clhfg; ngz;zpar; rpe;jid vOr;rp ngw;w tuyhw;iwr; FWfpa tbtpy; ju Kay;fpd;wJ ,f;fl;Liu.

1949 ,y;  Simone de Beauvoir   vd;w gpuQ;Rg; ngz; vOj;jhsu; vOjpa “The Second Sex” vd;w ngz;zpak; njhlu;ghd E}y; INuhg;gpar; #oypy; cUf;nfhz;l ngz;zpar; rpe;jidfis ntspg;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. ,e;j E}Ny ,e;jf; fl;Liuf;fhd jpwTNfhyhfTk; jskhfTk; mikfpd;wJ.

‘ghypaYf;F vjpuhfg; Ngdh J}f;fpa Kjy; ngz;’ vd Christine de Pizan (1364 – 1430)  vd;gtiur; Rl;bf;fhl;LfpwJ ,e;E}y;. ,j;jhypapy; gpwe;J ghup]; efupy; tho;e;jtuhd Christine de Pizan INuhg;gpag; ngz;zpar; rpe;jid ntspg;ghl;bd; njhlf;fkhfTk; ,Uf;fyhk;.

16 E}w;whz;by; gpuhd;rpy; tho;e;j Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa vd;w vOj;jhsu; vOjpa  Declamation on the Nobility and Preeminence of the Female Sex’, (1529) vd;Dk; E}y; ngz;fspd; ,iwapay; rhu;e;j jhu;kPf Nkd;ikia czu;j;Jtjhf The Second Sex” Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ. ,Nj E}w;whz;by; ,j;jhypauhd Moderata Fonte vOjpa The Worth of Women’ (1600) vd;Dk; E}Yk; ngz;fspd; Nkd;ikiag; giwrhw;Wtjhf mike;jJ vd Simone de Beauvoir  mk;ikahu; jd; E}ypy; njuptpf;fpd;whu;.

Marie de Gournay  (1565- 1645) vd;w gpuQ;Rg; ngz;kzp vOjpa The Equality of Men and Women’ (1622) and ‘The Ladies' Grievance’ , 1626) vd;w ,U E}y;fSk; ngz;fspy; ,Uj;jypay; gw;wpa tpthjq;fis Kd;itj;Js;sd.

17k; E}w;whz;by; ,q;fpyhe;jpy; gpwe;J mnkupf;fhtpy; tho;;e;j  Anne Bradstreet (1612- 1672) vd;w ngz; ftpQu; ngz;zpak; njhlu;gpy; Kf;fpakhdtuhf mwpag;gLfpd;whu;. mnkupf;fhtpd; Kjy; ngz; ftpQuhf mwpag;gLk; Bradstreet mk;ikahNu mnkupf;fhtpy; ngz;zpar; rpe;jidfis ntspg;gLj;jpa Kjy; gilg;ghsuhfTk; fUjg;gLfpd;whu;.

ghup]; efupy; gpwe;J n[dpthtpy; tho;e;jtuhd François Poullain de la Barre (1647 -1725)  vd;w vOj;jhsu; ngz;zpay; rpe;jidahsuhf mwpag;gLfpd;whu;. ngz;fSf;fhf vOjpa ‘Mz;’ vd;wtifapy; ,tuJ vOj;Jfs; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ngWfpd;wd. 

gpuQ;R ehl;ltuhd Olympe De Gouges (1748 - 1793)  Kf;fpakhdnjhU ngz;zpayhsuhff; fUjg;gLfpd;whu;. gpuQ;Rg; Gul;rp eilngw;w fhyq;fspy; ngz;fspy; cupikf;fhf typikahff; Fuy; nfhLj;jtuhf ,tu; milahsg;gLj;jg;gl;bUf;fpd;whu;. 1789,y; eilngw;w Gul;rpg; Nguzpapy; ngz;fs; ngUkstpy; jpuz;likapd; gpd;dzpapYk; ,tu; nraw;gl;bUf;fpd;whu;. gpuQ;Rg; Gul;rp KbTw;wNghJk; ngz;fs; epiy tpbT ngwhjpUe;jJ. ‘ cyf tuyhw;wpy; khw;wq;fis Vw;gLj;jpa gpuQ;Rg; Gul;rpahdJ> ngz;fs; njhlu;gpy; Njhy;tpapNyNa Kbe;jpUf;fpd;wJ’ vd;w fUj;Jgl> 1791 ,y; ,tu; vOjpa  Mf;fk; ‘Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen’ vd;gjhFk;. 

gpupj;jhdpahitr; Nru;e;j Mary Wollstonecraft vd;w ngz;kzpNa Kjy; ngz;epiy Ma;thsuhff; fUjg;gLfpd;whu;. ,tu; vOjpa E}y;fshd Vindication of the Rights of Woman’(1792), Vindication of the Rights of Men’(1790),  vd;w ,uz;ilAk; Ma;Tf;fl;Liufs; vd;Nw Simone de Beauvoir Fwpg;gpLfpd;whu;. ,tiug; gpupj;jhdpag; ngz;zpathjj;jpd; jha; vdg; gpupj;jhdpau; Nghw;Wfpd;wdu;.

gpuQ;Rg; Gul;rp eilngw;w fhyj;jpy; 1789 Xf;Nlhgu; 5k; ehs; ghup]; efupy; Nguzpahfj; jpuz;l ngz;fs; MAjq;fSld; thu;rha; efUf;F ele;J nrd;W mur khspifia Kw;Wifapl;ldu;. ,g;Nghuhl;lk; ngz;fSf;fhd cupikfis Kd;itj;Nj eilngw;wJ vdg; gyUk; vOjp tUfpd;wdu;. mJ jtwhd nra;jpahFk;. “grp> gl;bdpahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l ngz;fs; ‘rpwhu;fSf;Fk; jkf;Fkhd czT fpilf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gNjhL> mit rkkhfg; gq;fplg;gl Ntz;Lk;’ vdf;Nfhup elj;jg;gl;l Nghuhl;lNk ,JthFk;” vdj; jpU f. thRNjtd; jd;Dila ‘gpuQ;Rg; Gul;rp’ vd;w E}ypy; Fwpg;gpl;bUf;fpd;whu;.

INuhg;gpa tuyhw;wpy; ngz;fs; ngUkstpy; jpuz;nlOe;j Kjy; epfo;thf ,jidf; Fwpg;gplyhk;.

INuhg;gpa> tlmnkupf;f tuyhw;W Nehf;fpy; gjpndl;lhk; E}w;whz;L tiu ngz;zpak; rhu;e;J epfo;e;;j Kd;ndLg;Gfshf Nkw;Fwpg;gpl;l nra;jpfisf; fUjyhk;.

Mary Wollstonecraft vOjpa Vindication of the Rights of Woman’ vd;w E}y; gy ehLfspYk; jhf;fq;fis Vw;gLj;jpaJ. cynfq;Fk; gutpa gpupj;jhdpa Ml;rpNahL ,e;j E}Yk; gutpaJ vdyhk;.

ngz;fs; kj;jpapy; tpopg;Gzu;T Vw;glj; njhlq;fpajd; tpisthf> gj;njhd;gjhk; E}w;whz;by; gy ehLfs; ngz;fs; njhlu;gpy; gy r%f khw;wq;fis Vw;gLj;j Kad;wd. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf>

·      1809,y; jpUkzkhd ngz;fs; gpd;Dupik (wills) vOJtjw;fhd ,irit epA+Nahu;f; khepyk; toq;fpaJ.

·      1811,y; jpUkzkhd ngz;fs; jkJ nghUshjhuk; njhlu;ghf KbntLf;fTk; tpUk;gpa njhopy;fisj; Nju;e;njLf;fTk; x];upah ehL mDkjpj;jJ.

·      1821,y; mnkupf;f khepyq;fspy; xd;whd Nka;d;> jpUkzkhd ngz;fs; jd; nrhj;Jfis MSik nra;aTk; fztdhy; ,ayhjtplj;J mtUila nrhj;Jfisg; ghuhkupf;fTk; mDkjpj;jJ.

·      1829,y;; gpupj;jhdpauJ Ml;rpf;F cl;gl ,e;jpa muR ngz;fs; cld;fl;il VWk; tof;fj;ijj; jil nra;jJ.

·      1884,y; khefurigj; Nju;jypy; fztid ,oe;j> jpUkzkhfhj ngz;fs; thf;fspg;gjw;fhd cupikia xd;uhwpNah muR toq;fpaJ. fdlhtpd; gpw khfhzq;fs; ,t;Tupikia 1890,y; toq;fpd. gpupj;jhdpah 1894NyNa cs;@u; Nju;jypy; ngz;fs; thf;fspf;Fk; cupikia toq;fpaJ.

,t;thwhfg; gy ehLfSk; ngz;fs; njhlu;ghd Gjpa khw;wq;fis gj;njhd;gjhk; E}w;whz;by; eilKiwg;gLj;jpd. ,e;j E}w;whz;by; ehLfs; NjhWk; gy ngz;zpayhsu; Njhd;wpdu;. ngz;fSf;fhd mikg;GfSk; Njhw;wk; nfhz;ld. Movement for English Feminism’ vd;w mikg;G 1850 ,y; gpupj;jhdpahtpy; Njhd;wpaJ.

nld;khu;f; ehl;by; Danish Women's Society or Dansk Kvindesamfund  vd;w mikg;G 1871,y; Njhd;wpaJ. ,JNt ngz;fSf;fhd cupikfis ikag;ggLj;jpa Kjy; mikg;G vdf; $wg;gLfpd;wJ. ,e;j mikg;G 1885 njhlf;fk;  ntspapl;l ngz;fSk; r%fKk; (Women and Society- Kvinden & Samfundet) vd;w ,jNo cyfpy; ngz;fSf;fhfj; Njhd;wpa Kjw; rQ;rpif vdf; Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUf;fpd;wJ.

ngz;fs; vOr;rp njhlu;ghfg; gy ,izaj;jsq;fs; Fwpg;gpLfpd;w xU epfo;T> 1857,y; epA+Nahu;f; efupy; ngz;fs; cupik Nfhup elj;jpa gpukhz;lkhd Mu;g;ghl;lg; NguzpahFk;. epahakhd CjpaKk; cupikfisAk; Nfhup elj;jg;gl;l ,g;Nguzp Ml;rpahsuhy; nfhLikahf mlf;fg;gl;L> ngz;fSk; fLikahfg; ghjpf;fg;gl;ldu; vd;w Fwpg;Ng gy ,lq;fspy; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.

,f;fl;Liu vOJtjw;fhf cz;ikahd nra;jpfisj; Njbajpy; fz;lwpe;j kpfg;ngupa cz;ik vJntdpy;> Nkw;$wpa Mu;g;ghl;lg; Nguzp njhlu;ghd ve;jnthU tuyhw;W MjhuKk; ,y;iy vd;gNj.  ON THE SOCIALIST ORIGINS OF INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S DAY’ vd;w E}iy vOjpa Temma Kaplan ,j;jftiyj; jUfpd;whu;. 1950fspy; gpuQ;R ehl;by; tho;e;j rkj;Jtf; nfhs;ifahsupilNa ,f;fij cytpajhf ,tu; Fwpg;gpLfpd;whu;. Kjyhspj;Jtj;Jf;F vjpuhd Nghf;Ff; nfhz;Nlhu; ,f;fijia cUthf;fpapUf;fyhk; vd ,tu; fUJfpd;whu;.

‘1907 khu;r; 8 ehs;;> epA+Nahu;f; efupy; gjpidahapuj;Jf;Fk; Nkw;gl;l ngz;fs; Nguzpnahd;iw elj;jpdu;. Crp> Mil Nghd;wtw;iw cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; njhopw;rhiyfspy; gzpGupe;j ,g;ngz;fs; jkf;fhd cupikfs; Ntz;Lk; vd;w Nfhupf;ifia Kd;itj;jdu;’ vd;w nra;jpiar; rpf;fhf;Nfh gy;fiyf;fof ,izaj;jsf; Fwpg;nghd;W njuptpf;fpd;wJ. 

1857 khu;r; 8,y; ,y; eilngw;wjhff; fUjg;gLk; Mu;g;ghl;lg; Nguzpapd; 50 Mz;il epidT$Wk; tifapNyNa ,g;Nghuhl;lk; Kd;ndLf;fg;gl;lJ vd ,f;Fwpg;G njuptpf;fpd;wNghJk;  Temma Kaplan ,r;nra;jpia kWf;fpd;whu; vd;gijAk; mJ Fwpg;gpl;bUf;fpd;wJ.

1907 khu;r; 8,y; epA+Nahu;f; efupy; eilngw;w ngz;fs; NguzpNa midj;Jyf kfspu; ehspdJ njhlf;fk; vd>  INuhg;gpau; gyUk; ek;Gtjhff; Fwpg;gpLk; Temma Kaplan,   fpsuh n[l;fpd; (Clara Zetkin) vd;w n[u;kdpag; ngz;kzpapd; ngUk; gzpNa midj;Jyf kfspu; ehspd; Njhw;wj;Jf;Ff; fhuzk; vd;fpd;whu;.

1889 ,y; ghup]; efupy; Bastille Nfhl;ilapy; eilngw;w rkj;Jtf; nfhs;ifahsupd; $l;lj;jpy; Nk ehs; Nguzpfs; gw;wpg; Ngrg;gl;ld. mjpy; fye;J nfhz;l fpsuh n[l;fpd; ngz;fspd; Njitfis Kd;itj;jhu;. $bapUe;j ,lJrhupfs;> vl;L kzpNeu Ntiy> ngz;fs;> rpwhu;fis Ntiyf;F epu;g;ge;jpj;jiy epWj;jy; Nghd;w Nfhupf;iffis Nk ehs; Cu;tyj;jpy; Kd;itf;f xg;Gf;nfhz;ldu;.

n[u;kdpapypUe;J ntspahd Nrhrypr [dehaff; fl;rpapd; ngz;fs; nra;jpj;jhshd Gleichhet’ ,dJ Mrpupauhf 1890 Kjy; 1915 tiu fpsuh n[l;fpd; gzpahw;wpdhu;. mt;Ntis Ntiy nra;Ak; ngz;fspd; mtyq;fis ntspg;gLj;jpdhu;. fl;rpf;F cs;Sk; GwKkkhff; fLikahd ngz;zpa vjpu;g;ghsu;fis mtu; vjpu;nfhs;s Ntz;bapUe;jJ.

ngz;zpar; rpe;jidfshy; xd;Wgl;l ngz;fs; gyUk; rkj;Jtf; nfhs;if rhu;e;j ngz;fSf;fhd midj;Jyff; fl;likg;ig cUthf;f tpUk;gpdu;. n[u;kdpapy; cs;s  Stuttgart  efupy;; 1907 xf];l; 17 ehspy; $ba $l;lj;jpy; Nrhryprf; nfhs;ifapd; fPo; ngz;fs; mzp jpuz;ldu;. fpsuh n[l;fpd;> kw;WnkhU n[u;kdpa Nrhrypr ngz;zpayhsuhd Louise Zietz MfpNahupd; jiyikia ngz;fs; Vw;wdu;. ngz;fSf;fhd cupikfSf;fhfg; NghuhLtJld;> jkJ ,yf;Ffs; njhlu;ghf tpthjpf;fTk; tpsq;fq;fs; juTk; jahuhfpdu;.

mnkupf;fh> INuhg;ghitr; Nru;e;j rkj;Jtf; nfhs;ifahsu; ngz;fSila thf;Fupikf;fhfg; Nghuhlj; jaq;fpdu;. Vnddpy; ngz;fspd; murpay; cupikfs; ahTk; nghUshjhug; gyj;ijf; nfhz;bUe;j Mz;fsplNk ,Ue;jd. ngz;fspd; thf;Fupik goikthjpfisAk; gyg;gLj;jptpLk; vdf; fUjpdu;. ,Ug;gpDk; ngz;fs; Nrhryprf; fl;rpapdNuhL njhlu;e;J thjpl;ldu;.  cupikfisf; Nfl;Lg; NghuhLk; mtrpaj;ij typAWj;jpdu;.  mjpy; ntw;wpAk; ngw;wdu;.

,jidj; njhlu;e;J> If;fpa mnkupf;fhtpd; Nrhryprf; fl;rp thf;Fupikg; Nghuhl;lg; gug;Giuf;fhf 1908 ,y; Njrpag; ngz;fs; rigia cUthf;fpaJ. mj;NjhL Nguzpf;fhd Vw;ghLfisr; nra;AkhWk; mr;rigiaf; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lJ. epA+Nahu;f; efiuj; jskhff; nfhz;L ,aq;fpa fl;rpapd; fpisahd Nrhrypr [dehaf ngz;fs; mikg;G khngUk; Nguzpf;F Vw;ghL nra;jJ.

1908 khu;r; 8k; ehs; epA+Nahu;f; efupy; gy;yhapuf;fzf;fhd ngz;fs; fye;J nfhz;L cupikfSf;fhff; Fuy; vOg;gpdu;.  njhlu;e;J mnkupf;f Nrhryprf; fl;rp Mz;L NjhWk; ngg;utup ,Wjp Qhapw;Wf;fpoikiaj; ‘Njrpag; ngz;fs; ehs;’ Mf mwptpj;jJ.
mnkupf;f Nrhryprf; fl;rp 1909 ngg;utup 23k; ehSk;; 1910 ngg;utup 27k; ehSk;; epA+Nahu;f; efupy; Njrpag; ngz;fs; ehisf; nfhz;lhbaJ. mNjNtis ,e;ehis midj;Jyfg; ngz;fs; ehshfTk; ,f;fl;rpapdu; nfhz;lhbajhff; Kaplan Fwpg;gpLfpd;whu;. n[u;kdpapy; cs;s  Stuttgart  efupy;; 1907 xf];l; 17 ehspy; ngz; rkj;Jtf; nfhs;ifahsu; mzp Kd;ndLj;j nghUshjhu rkTupik> thf;Fupik Nghd;w Nfhupf;iffs; gw;wpa tplaq;fisAk; mnkupf;f Nrhryprf; fl;rpapdu; mwpe;jpUe;jdu; vd;fpwhu; Kaplan.

INuhg;gpag; ngz;zpapyhsu; Kjd;Kjyhfg; ngz;zpar; rpe;jidfSf;Fr; nray; tbtk; nfhLj;jpUe;jhYk; mikg;G tifahf NguzpfisAk; Nghuhl;lq;fisAk; mnkupf;fu;fNs Kjypy; Kd;ndLj;jpUe;jdu;. INuhg;gpa Nrhryprg; ngz;zpayhsu; 1911k; Mz;bNyNa jkJ Kjy; epfo;it Kd;ndLj;jdu;.

nld;khu;f; ehl;bd; jiyefuhd Copenhagen ,y;  midj;Jyf Nrhryprg; ngz;fs; mikg;gpdu; 1910 Xf];by; $bdu;. ,e;jf; $l;lj;jpd; Kjd;ikahsu;fshd fpshuh n[l;fpd;> Louise Zietz MfpNahu; INuhg;ghtpy; midj;Jyg; ngz;fs; ehs; mLj;j Mz;by; Kd;ndLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd typAWj;jpdu;. Mdhy; ehs; Fwpf;fg;gltpy;iy.

mnkupf;fh ngh];ld; khepyj;ijr; rhu;e;j Nrhryprg; ngz;fs; mikg;gpdu; 1911 ngg;utup 23k; ehs; Njrpag; ngz;fis ehis Kd;dpl;Lg; Nguzp elj;jpdu;. ntz;zpw Mil mzpe;J gjhijfs; jhq;fpa ,g;Nguzp nghUs; nghjpe;jjhf ,Ue;jJ vd> ‘Women Journal’ vd;w ,jo; Fwpg;gpl;bUf;fpd;wJ. 

epA+Nahu;f; efupy; 1911 ngg;utup 25k; ehs; Njrpag; ngz;fs; ehs; epfo;NthL midj;Jyfg; ngz;fs; ehSk; nfhz;lhlg;gl;lJ. ,f;$l;lj;jpy; ‘Bertha Fraser’ vd;w ngz;zpayhsu;  Mw;wpa ciu Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;jjhf mike;jJ.

INuhg;gpau; Kjd;Kjyhf jkJ ‘midj;Jyfg; ngz;fs; ehis’ 1911 khu;r; 18,y; x];upahtpd; jiyefuhd tpad;dhtpy; nfhz;lhbdu;. ngUkstpy; jpuz;l ngz;fs;> tuyhw;Wf; fhye;njhl;L %lg;gl;bUe;j ,Ug;Gf; fjTfis mirj;jdu;. mLj;J te;j Ie;jhz;Lfspy; ngz; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f cupikfisg; ngWtjw;Ff; fhuzkhf ,g;Nguzp mike;jJ.

kWehshd khu;r; 19k; ehs; nld;khu;f;> Rtp];yhe;J> n[u;kdp Mfpa ehLfspYk; ‘midj;Jyfg; ngz;fs;’ ehs; Nguzpfs; elj;jg;gl;ld.

1911 khu;r; 25 ehs; epA+Nahu;f; efu; Manhattan gFjpapy; Jd;gfukhd epfo;T xd;W eilngw;wJ. ,g;gFjpapy; ,aq;fp te;j Triangle Shirtwaist Milj;njhopw;rhiy khiy 4:40 kzpastpy; jPg;gpbj;jJ. 123 ngz; njhopyhsu;fSk; 23 Mz; njhopyhsu;fSk; mj;jPapy; rpf;fpf; nfhz;ldu;. mDkjpaw;w Xa;ntLj;jiyj; jtpu;g;gjw;fhfTk; jpUlu; cs; Eioahky; ,Uf;fTk; cupikahsu; fjTfisg; G+l;b itg;gJ ,j;njhopw;rhiyapd; tof;fkhf ,Ue;Js;sJ. ,jdhy; jPapy; rpf;fpf; nfhz;l midtUk; jg;g topapd;wpf; fUfp ,we;jdu;.

ngz;fs; NghuhLtij tpUk;ghj Kjyhspfs; jpl;lkpl;Lj; jPA+l;bajhfg; gy ,izaj;jsq;fs; $Wfpd;wd. mit ahTk; Mjhukw;w fUj;JfshFk;. Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire vd;w ,izaf; Fwpg;G> ,t;tpgj;J gw;wp tpupthff; $Wfpd;wJ.

1912 ,y; mnkupf;fhtpy; cs;s Lawrence  gFjpapy; gzp Gupe;j Milj; njhopw;rhiyg; gzpahsu; gzpg; Gwf;fzpg;Gg; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; <Lgl;lik Kf;fpakhnjhU epfo;thf Nehf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ghJfhg;ghd Ntiy> Nghjpa Cjpak; vd;w Nfhupf;iffis Kd;itj;J Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l ,g;Nghuhl;lk; vd ‘Rose and Bread’ miof;fg;gl;lJ. ,j;njhopw;rhiyfspy; ngz;fNs ngUk;ghd;ikahfg; gzp Gupe;jdu;. ,Ugjpdhapuk; gzpahsu; ,g;Nghuhl;lj;jpy; <Lgl;ljhff; $wg;gLfpd;wJ.

1914 ,y; Kjyhk; cyfg;Nghu; Muk;gpj;jjdhy; INuhg;gpa> mnkupf;f ngz;fs; ehs; epfo;Tfs; njhlu;r;rpahf eilngwtpy;iy. Nghu; ngz;fs; rpWtu;fisg; ngupJk; ghjpj;jJ. Mq;fhq;Nf NghUf;nfjpuhd Fuy;fisg; ngz;fs; vOg;gpdu;. 1917 ngg;utup 23 ,y; ,j;jhypapy; cs;s Turin vd;w ,lj;jpy; Vw;ghL nra;a;gl;l midj;Jyfg; ngz;fs; ehspy; ‘MAjq;fs; tPo;f’ vdg; ngz;fs; Fuy; vOg;gpdu;.

,f;fhyj;jpy; urpah ehl;by; Kd;ndLf;fg;gl;l ngz;zpak; rhu;e;j Nghuhl;lq;fs; jdpj;jd;ik tha;e;jitahf mike;jd. 1913 ngg;utupapy; mnkupf;fhitg; gpd;gw;wp> n[u;kdpapy; cs;s  Stuttgart  efupy;; 1907 xf];l; 17 ehspy; Bolsheviks f;Ffspy; xUtuhd Alexandra Kollontai vd;w ngz;zpayhsuhy; midj;Jyfg; ngz;fs; ehs; Kd;ndLf;fg;l;lJ.

mt;Ntis urpahit ,uz;lhk; rhu; epf;fps]; (Czar Nicholas II) vd;w kd;ddpd; Ml;rpapd; fPo; ,Ue;jJ.  kf;fs; Nghjpa cztpd;wpAk; tpiy cau;thYk; thbdu;. muRf;nfjpuhfg; Nghuhl;lq;fs; njhlq;fpd. 1917k; Mz;L [dtup> ngg;utup khjq;fspy; Vwf;Fiwa 5 ,yl;rk; kf;fs; Nghuhl;lq;fspy; Fjpj;jdu;. ngg;utup 23,y; ngUk; Nguzp Kd;ndLf;fg;gl;lJ. ngz;fs; ngUkstpy; jpuz;ldu;. Alexandra Kollontai ,g;Nghuhl;lq;fspd; gpd;dzpapy; ,aq;fpdhu;.

ngg;utup 25 ,y; vOr;rp nfhz;l ngz;fs; md;iwa ehis midj;Jyfg; ngz;fs; ehshf Kd;ndLj;Jg; Nghuhl;lk; elj;jpdu;. urpa murpd; MAjg;gil mg;Nghuhl;lj;ij ntwpnfhz;L eRf;fpaJ. vdpDk; rhTf;F mQ;rhJ vOr;rp nfhz;l kf;fSila Nghuhl;lj;jpdhy; rhu; epf;fps]pDila Ml;rp tPo;e;jJ.

Gul;rpf;Fg; ngz;fspd; MjuNthL> Gjpa ‘kf;fs; muR’ Ml;rpf;F te;jJ. mLj;JtUk; Mz;Lfspy; midj;Jyfg; ngz;fs; ehisf; nfhz;lhl urpa muR jpl;lkpl;lJ. fpsuh n[l;fpd; mk;ikahupd; cjtpAld; urpa mjpguhd nydpd; 1922 ,y; midj;Jyfg; ngz;fs; ehis tpLKiw ehshf mwptpj;jhu;.

Kjyhk; cyfg;Nghu; Kbtile;j gpd;> x];upah midj;Jyf kfspu; ehis 1918 khu;r; 8 ,y; nfhz;lhbaJ.  1936 ,y; ];ngapd; ehl;by; nghJTlikf; fl;rp Ml;rpf;F te;jTld;> khu;r; 8k; ehs; midj;Jyfg; ngz;fs; ehs; epfo;T> Nguzpahf Kd;ndLf;fg;gl;lJ. ‘tsu;e;J tUk; ghrpr mr;RWj;jy;fspy; ,Ue;J ngz;fs; ghJfhf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;’ vd;w Nfhupf;if ,g;Nguzp eilngw;wNghJ Kd;itf;fg;gl;lJ.

‘midj;Jyg; ngz;fs; ehs;’ njhlu;r;rpahf eilngWtjw;F ,uz;lhk; cyfg; Nghu; ngUe;jilahf ,Ue;jJ.

INuhg;gpa ehLfspd; tho;tpay; #oiy ikag;gLj;jpj; Njhw;wq;nfhz;l ngz;Zupikg; Nghuhl;lq;fs; cyfshtpa ngz; r%fj;ij Kw;WKOjhfg; gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;jpait vdf; fUJtJ nghUj;jkw;wJ. ‘INuhg;gpa r%fk; rhu;e;J Kd;ndLf;fg;gl;l Nghuhl;lq;fs;> mikg;G tifg;gl;l nraw;ghLfSf;Fk; gpd;dhl;fspy; Njhw;wq;nfhz;l cyfshtpa nraw;ghLfSf;Fkhd tYthd njhlf;fkhf mike;jd’ vdf; nfhs;tNj nghUj;jkhf ,Uf;Fk;.

1975 k; Mz;il> midj;Jyfg; ngz;fs; Mz;lhf If;fpa ehLfs; rig mq;fPfupj;jik tuyhw;Wr; rpwg;G kpf;f epfo;thFk;. mj;NjhL khu;r; 8k; ehis ‘midj;Jyfg; ngz;fs; ehs;’ vdTk; mwptpj;jJ. 1977 ,y; I.eh tpd; nghJr;rig fPo;f;fhZk; jPu;khdj;ij epiwNtw;wpaJ.
“United Nations Day for Women's Rights and International Peace to be observed on any day of the year by Member States, in accordance with their historical and national traditions."

2014k; Mz;by; 100f;F Nkw;gl;l ehLfs; midj;Jyf ngz;fs; ehisf; nfhz;lhbapUf;fpd;wd. 25 f;F Nkw;gl;l ehLfs; ,e;ehis tpLKiw ehshff; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd. ,tw;Ws; rPdhTk; tpal;dhKk; ngz;fSf;F kl;LNk tpLKiw toq;fp tUfpd;wd.

If;fpa ehLfs; rig 2016k; Mz;Lf;fhd midj;Jyfg; ngz;fs; ehis Kd;dpl;L gpd;tUk; ,yf;if ntspapl;Ls;sJ.

ஆண் பெண் உட்பட எல்லோரும் மிக விரைவில் பாலின சமச்சீர்மையை அடைவோம் என உறுதி கொள்வோம். பெண்கள் தமது இலக்குகளை அடைவதற்காக, பாலின சமச்சீர்மை மிக்க தலைமை உருவாக்கவும் பாலின வேறுபாடுகளின் பெறுமானத்தை உணர்ந்து மதிக்கவும் உள்ளார்ந்த நெகிழ்ச்சி கொண்ட பண்பாட்டு நடத்தைகளைப் பேணவும் பணியிடங்களில் காணப்படும் பாலின வேற்றுமைகளை வேரோடு களையவும் நாம் ஒன்றிணைவோம். பாலின சமச்சீர்மையை ஏற்படுத்தவல்ல நடைமுறைக்கேற்ற நடவடிக்கைகளைத் துரிதப்படுத்தவும் அவற்றைத் தாக்கமும் பொறுப்பும் மிக்கதான மையத்தில் ஒருங்கிணைக்கும் பணியில் நாம் தலைமையேற்று இயங்குவோம்.”


,Ugjhk; E}w;whz;L ngz;fspd; NgUyFf;fhd thriy mfyj; jpwe;Jtpl;lJ vdyhk;. vdpDk; ‘ngz;fs; MZf;F epfuhf midj;ijAk; mile;J tpl;ldu;’ vdf; $wKbahjpUg;gJ ,e;j E}w;whz;bd; ngUe;JauNk.

khu;r; 2016 - jha;tPL ,jopy; ntspahd fl;Liu. 

nghd;idah tpNtfhde;jd; 


Jiz epd;wit:
On the socialist origins of International Women’s Day - Temma Kaplan Feminist Studies 11, No. 1 (1985), pp. 163-171.





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